fertility

fertility, fertility rate
The actual level of childbearing of an individual or population. There are different ways of measuring the fertility of a population. The simplest measure, the crude birth-rate , relates the number of live births in a given year to the total population size in that year. More complex measures relate the year's births to more restricted populations, usually childbearing women, to yield a better index of underlying fertility. The denominator may be all women of childbearing years (commonly set at 15 to 44) or women in more specific age-bands (age-specific fertility rates). Fertility rates may be combined with mortality rates to generate an overall reproduction rate.
Measures relating fertility to population (whether total or specific) in a given year are termed period rates. Arguably of more value in detecting fertility trends are so-called cohort rates . These measure the births to women grouped according to year of birth (birth cohorts) or age at marriage (marriage cohorts). Cohort fertility rates can reveal variations in the timing of childbearing between different cohorts and indicate whether changes in period measures are due to changes in the spacing of births or to changes in overall family size (though final figures can only be obtained after a lengthy period).
Historically there has been a long-term decline in levels of fertility in industrial societies, a decline that is associated with economic development and restructuring, reductions in child mortality, changes in welfare provision and the economic and social value of children, and the changing social position of women.

Dictionary of sociology. 2013.

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  • Fertility — is the natural capability of giving life. As a measure, Fertility Rate is the number of children born per couple, person or population. This is different from fecundity, which is defined as the potential for reproduction (influenced by gamete… …   Wikipedia

  • Fertility — Fer*til i*ty, n. [L. fertilitas: cf. F. fertilit[ e].] The state or quality of being fertile or fruitful; fruitfulness; productiveness; fecundity; richness; abundance of resources; fertile invention; quickness; readiness; as, the fertility of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • fertility — early 15c., from M.Fr. fertilité, from L. fertilitatem (nom. fertilitas) fruitfulness, fertility, from fertilis (see FERTILE (Cf. fertile)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • fertility — fertility. См. фертильность. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • fertility — index maternity Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • fertility — fruitfulness, fecundity, prolificacy (see under FERTILE) Antonyms: infertility, sterility Contrasted words: impotence or impotency, barrenness, unfruitfulness (see corresponding adjectives at STERILE) …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • fertility — [n] readiness to bear, produce abundance, copiousness, fecundity, feracity, fruitfulness, generative capacity, gravidity, luxuriance, plentifulness, potency, pregnancy, productiveness, productivity, prolificacy, prolificity, puberty, pubescence,… …   New thesaurus

  • fertility — [fər til′ə tē] n. 1. the quality, state, or degree of being fertile; fecundity 2. the birthrate of a given population …   English World dictionary

  • fertility — fer|til|i|ty [ fɜr tıləti ] noun uncount * 1. ) the ability of the soil to produce a lot of good crops or plants: measures to improve the fertility of the soil 2. ) a woman s ability to have babies: Utah has the highest fertility rate in the… …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • fertility */ — UK [fɜː(r)ˈtɪlətɪ] / US [fɜrˈtɪlətɪ] noun [uncountable] 1) the ability of the soil to produce a lot of good crops or plants measures to improve the fertility of the soil 2) a) a woman s ability to have babies Utah has the highest fertility rate… …   English dictionary

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